Recycling and disposal of electronic waste in Germany
Producer Responsibility System
The extended producer responsibility system refers to the environmental responsibility undertaken by the producer not only in the production process of the product, but also to the entire product life cycle, especially the responsibility for recycling and disposal after disposal.
Earliest Country - Germany
Germany is the earliest country to implement the extended producer responsibility system. Starting from the "Waste Management Law" promulgated in 1972, Germany has successively promulgated a series of policies and regulations to standardize the management of recycling and disposal of waste electronic products.
At present, electronic waste is mainly recovered and disposed of in accordance with the Federal Law on the Circulation, Recycling, and Environmentally Friendly Disposal of Electronic and Electrical Equipment (ElektroG, the German Electronic and Electrical Law) promulgated in 2005.
ElektroG's departments include the German Federal Ministry of Environmental Protection, the management center, the public recycling company, the old electrical processing company and the center of the entire implementation system-producers.
Electronic Old Equipment Registration Fund(EAR)
The manufacturer establishes a management center, ie the Electronic Old Equipment Registration Fund (die Stiftung Elektro-Altgeraete Register "EAR").
EAR's main tasks in the recycling and disposal of electronic waste are to classify electrical products; calculate the amount of electronic waste recovered by recycling companies; formulate plans for manufacturers to retrieve electronic waste; report the total annual sales of electronic products, Total amount of e-waste recovered, total amount of e-waste reused by manufacturers, and amount of e-waste recovered, collected, and exported by manufacturers.
In operation, EAR receives corresponding cost compensation from the German Federal Ministry of Environmental Protection, accepts the commission of the Federal Ministry of Environmental Protection, and undertakes the registration of manufacturers.
German e-waste Management Authority
German e-waste is mainly recycled by the Public Waste Management Authority (PuWaMA). Sellers can recycle e-waste on a voluntary basis.
The data show that the recycling rate of German electronic waste in 2010 reached 45% (about 9.5 kg / resident / a). Research shows that scavengers are one of the main factors limiting the recycling rate. Reported data show that about 37% of electronic waste is picked up by scavengers and sold to recyclers for disassembly or illegal export.
Therefore, some cities have strengthened the protection measures at collection points to improve the recovery rate. Recycling points According to the regulations of different states, PuWaMA can hand over electronic waste to charity or non-profit organizations, and then re-use it after refurbishment and repair. It can also send the recovered electronic waste to dismantling and processing agencies authorized by the manufacturer Perform disassembly.
Before PuWaMA delivers electronic waste to dismantling companies, some manufacturers can directly retrieve their own electronic waste from PuWaMA and hand it over to dismantling companies for disposal.
EAR monitors e-waste processed by manufacturers based on their market share. The dismantling enterprise feedbacks the processing amount to the manufacturer, and the manufacturer reports the data to the EAR after verification.
Good economic benefits
EAR conducts cost accounting based on the sales and processing volume of manufacturers, and issues subsidies. The biggest advantage of the existing disposal methods in Germany is that manufacturers can independently choose dismantling and processing institutions, putting pressure on dismantling enterprises, improving their dismantling efficiency and speeding up technological updates, low processing costs and good economic benefits.